Shiraz E-Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

The Effects of Religious and Spiritual Interventions on the Resilience of Family Members of Patients in the ICU

Mahmood Rahmati 1 , Behnam Khaledi 2 , Nader Salari 3 , Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan 4 and Anahita Haydarian 5 , *
Authors Information
1 Psychiatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran
2 Psychiatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sleep Disorders Research Centre, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran
5 M.Sc. student of critical care nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran
Article information
  • Shiraz E-Medical Journal: November 2017, 18 (11); e13007
  • Published Online: October 16, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 11, 2017
  • Revised: August 5, 2017
  • Accepted: September 11, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/semj.13007

To Cite: Rahmati M, Khaledi B, Salari N, Bazrafshan M, Haydarian A. et al. The Effects of Religious and Spiritual Interventions on the Resilience of Family Members of Patients in the ICU, Shiraz E-Med J. 2017 ;18(11):e13007. doi: 10.5812/semj.13007.

Copyright © 2017, Shiraz E-Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Kuo DZ, Houtrow AJ, Arango P, Kuhlthau KA, Simmons JM, Neff JM. Family-centered care: current applications and future directions in pediatric health care. Matern Child Health J. 2012; 16(2): 297-305[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Cameron MA, Schleien CL, Morris MC. Parental presence on pediatric intensive care unit rounds. J Pediatr. 2009; 155(4): 522-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Muething SE, Kotagal UR, Schoettker PJ, Gonzalez del Rey J, DeWitt TG. Family-centered bedside rounds: a new approach to patient care and teaching. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(4): 829-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Gough K, Hudson P. Psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in family caregivers of palliative care patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009; 37(5): 797-806[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Mehdipour-Rabori R, Nematollahi M. The effect of recommended Azkar on anxiety, stress, and depression in families of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2014; 19(3): 238-41[PubMed]
  • 6. Okkonen E, Vanhanen H. Family support, living alone, and subjective health of a patient in connection with a coronary artery bypass surgery. Heart Lung. 2006; 35(4): 234-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Rabie Siahkali S, Avazeh A, Eskandari F, Khaleghdoost Mohammadi T, Mazloom S, Paryad E. A survey on psychological and environmental factors on family anxiety of the hospitalized patients in intensive care units. Iran J Crit Care Nurs. 2011; 3(4): 177-82
  • 8. Sasangohar F, Donmez B, Easty A, Storey H, Trbovich P. Interruptions experienced by cardiovascular intensive care unit nurses: an observational study. J Crit Care. 2014; 29(5): 848-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Grundgeiger T, Sanderson P, MacDougall HG, Venkatesh B. Interruption management in the intensive care unit: Predicting resumption times and assessing distributed support. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2010; 16(4): 317-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Prates Dde O, Silva AE. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016; 24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Gaeeni M, Farahani MA, Mohammadi N, Seyedfatemi N. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2014; 19(6): 635-42[PubMed]
  • 12. Fassier T, Azoulay E. Conflicts and communication gaps in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010; 16(6): 654-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Chien WT, Chiu YL, Lam LW, Ip WY. Effects of a needs-based education programme for family carers with a relative in an intensive care unit: a quasi-experimental study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006; 43(1): 39-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004; 86(2): 320-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Ong AD, Zautra AJ, Reid MC. Psychological resilience predicts decreases in pain catastrophizing through positive emotions. Psychol Aging. 2010; 25(3): 516-23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Waugh CE, Thompson RJ, Gotlib IH. Flexible emotional responsiveness in trait resilience. Emotion. 2011; 11(5): 1059-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Sturgeon JA, Zautra AJ, Arewasikporn A. A multilevel structural equation modeling analysis of vulnerabilities and resilience resources influencing affective adaptation to chronic pain. Pain. 2014; 155(2): 292-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Sturgeon JA, Zautra AJ. Resilience: a new paradigm for adaptation to chronic pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010; 14(2): 105-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Cohn MA, Fredrickson BL, Brown SL, Mikels JA, Conway AM. Happiness unpacked: positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion. 2009; 9(3): 361-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Talepasand S, Pooragha F, Kazemi M. Resiliency and quality of life in patients with cancer: moderating role of duration of awareness of cancer. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2013; 6(4): 222-6[PubMed]
  • 21. Saeidi MS, Pour Ebrahim T, Bagherian F, Mansour L. The relationship between spirituality and resilience of families, the quality of communication in family mediation [In Persian]. J Manag Syst. 2010; 2(5): 63-79
  • 22. Nikmanesh Z, Honakzehi F. Examining perceived social support, positive affection, and spirituality, as resilience factors, among boys of drug-dependent fathers. Shiraz E-Med J. 2016; 17(12)[DOI]
  • 23. Waller MA. Resilience in ecosystemic context: evolution of the concept. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2001; 71(3): 290-7[PubMed]
  • 24. Saeedi Taheri Z, Asadzandi M, Ebadi A. The effect of spiritual care based on GHALBE SALIM model on spiritual experience in patients with coronary artery disease [In Persian]. J Nurs Educ. 2013; 1(3): 45-53
  • 25. Heinz AJ, Disney ER, Epstein DH, Glezen LA, Clark PI, Preston KL. A focus-group study on spirituality and substance-user treatment. Subst Use Misuse. 2010; 45(1-2): 134-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Laudet AB, Morgen K, White WL. The Role of Social Supports, Spirituality, Religiousness, Life Meaning and Affiliation with 12-Step Fellowships in Quality of Life Satisfaction Among Individuals in Recovery from Alcohol and Drug Problems. Alcohol Treat Q. 2006; 24(1-2): 33-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Seghatoleslam T, Habil H, Hatim A, Rashid R, Ardakan A, Esmaeili Motlaq F. Achieving a Spiritual Therapy Standard for Drug Dependency in Malaysia, from an Islamic Perspective: Brief Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2015; 44(1): 22-7[PubMed]
  • 28. Oh PJ, Kim SH. The effects of spiritual interventions in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014; 41(5)-301[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Goncalves JP, Lucchetti G, Menezes PR, Vallada H. Religious and spiritual interventions in mental health care: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Psychol Med. 2015; 45(14): 2937-49[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Bamdad M, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Dalvandi A, Khodayi Ardakani MR. Impact of spiritual care on spiritual health of hospitalized amphetamin dependents [In Persian]. J Nurs Educ. 2013; 1(3): 10-8
  • 31. Melhem GA, Zeilani RS, Zaqqout OA, Aljwad AI, Shawagfeh MQ, Al-Rahim MA. Nurses' Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Giving: A Comparison Study Among All Health Care Sectors in Jordan. Indian J Palliat Care. 2016; 22(1): 42-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. McSherry W, Jamieson S. An online survey of nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. J Clin Nurs. 2011; 20(11-12): 1757-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Baldacchino DR. Nursing competencies for spiritual care. J Clin Nurs. 2006; 15(7): 885-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Molzahn AE, Sheilds L. Why is it so hard to talk about spirituality? Can Nurse. 2008; 104(1): 25-9[PubMed]
  • 35. Wong KF, Yau SY. Nurses' experiences in spirituality and spiritual care in Hong Kong. Appl Nurs Res. 2010; 23(4): 242-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Wright S, Neuberger J. Why spirituality is essential for nurses. Nurs Stand. 2012; 26(40): 19-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Noble A, Jones C. Getting it right: oncology nurses' understanding of spirituality. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2010; 16(11): 565-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. van Leeuwen R, Tiesinga LJ, Post D, Jochemsen H. Spiritual care: implications for nurses' professional responsibility. J Clin Nurs. 2006; 15(7): 875-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Puchalski CM. The role of spirituality in health care. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001; 14(4): 352-7[PubMed]
  • 40. Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003; 18(2): 76-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Abolghasemi A, Rajabi S, Sheikhi M, Kiamarsi A, Sadrolmamaleki V. Comparison of resilience, positive/negative affect, and psychological vulnerability between Iranian infertile and fertile men. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2013; 7(1): 9-15[PubMed]
  • 42. Hoseiny H, Jadidi M, Habiballah Nataj L, Saberi-Zafarghandi MB. The effect of methadone-maintenance therapy with and without interactive treatment on improving emotion-regulation strategies and resilience among opiate-dependent clients. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2015; 4(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Khosravi M, Nikmanesh Z. Relationship of spiritual intelligence with resilience and perceived stress. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2014; 8(4): 52-6[PubMed]
  • 44. Yazdi-Ravandi S, Taslimi Z, Saberi H, Shams J, Osanlo S, Nori G, et al. The Role of Resilience and Age on Quality of life in Patients with Pain Disorders. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2013; 4(1): 24-30[PubMed]
  • 45. Jowkar B, Friborg O, Hjemdal O. Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran. Scand J Psychol. 2010; 51(5): 418-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Derakhshanrad SA, Piven E, Rassafiani M, Hosseini SA, Mohammadi Shahboulaghi F. Standardization of connor-davidson resilience scale in iranian subjects with cerebrovascular accident. J Rehab Sci Res. 2014; 1(4): 73-7
  • 47. Bergin AE, Richards PS. A spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy. 2005; : 422
  • 48. Hoseini Ghomi T, Salimi Bajestani H. Effectiveness of resilience training on stress of mothers whose children, suffer from cancer in Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran [In Persian]. Sci J Manag Sys. 2013; 1(4): 97-109
  • 49. Openshaw KP. The relationship between family functioning, family resilience, and quality of life among vocational rehabilitation clients. 2011;
  • 50. Naemi AM;(1):. Effectiveness of family-based education on mental health and resiliency of women with addicted husband (Case study: Sabzevar) [In Persian]. Women Polit Dev. 2015; 13(1): 41-52
  • 51. Samani S, Jokar B, Sahragard N. Effects of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction [In Persian]. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2007; 13(3): 290-5
  • 52. Taghizade ME, Miralaie M;(7):. Study of spiritual group therapy on increase of resiliency in female multiple sclerosis patients in Esfahan [In Persian]. Sci J Manag Sys. 2013; 2(7): 82-102
  • 53. Momeni K, Shahbazi Rad A. Relationship of spirituality, resiliency, and coping strategies with quality of life in university students. J Behav Sci. 2012; 6(2): 1-2
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments