Shiraz E-Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Frequency and Correlates of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in a Group of Iranian Patients with Dementia

Ali Javadpour 1 , * , Mohamad Reza Shenavar 2 , Mina Dehghani 2 and Mohammad Jafar Bahredar 3
Authors Information
1 MD, Associate Professor in Geriatric Psychiatry, Research Centre for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 MD, Resident in Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 PhD, Clinical Psychologist, Deputy of Clinical Affairs, Mental Health Unit, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Article information
  • Shiraz E-Medical Journal: February 01, 2017, 18 (2); e33852
  • Published Online: January 30, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 13, 2016
  • Revised: October 6, 2016
  • Accepted: January 22, 2017
  • DOI: 10.17795/semj33852

To Cite: Javadpour A, Shenavar M R, Dehghani M, Bahredar M J. Frequency and Correlates of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in a Group of Iranian Patients with Dementia, Shiraz E-Med J. 2017 ; 18(2):e33852. doi: 10.17795/semj33852.

Copyright © 2017, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Kim HS, Lee KS, Bae HJ, Koh IS, Chang SH, Im DH, et al. Changes in Length of Stay for Neurological Geriatric Diseases in Korea between 2003 and 2007. J Clin Neurol. 2011; 7(3): 148-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Murman DL, Chen Q, Powell MC, Kuo SB, Bradley CJ, Colenda CC. The incremental direct costs associated with behavioral symptoms in AD. Neurology. 2002; 59(11): 1721-9[PubMed]
  • 3. Shim Y, Kim B, Shon Y, Kim K, Yoon B, Yang D. Clinical characteristics of demented patients in a geriatric institution: Focused on behavioral and psychological symptoms. Dement Neurocogn Dis. 2005; 4(1): 35-40
  • 4. Aalten P, de Vugt ME, Jaspers N, Jolles J, Verhey FR. The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Part I: findings from the two-year longitudinal Maasbed study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005; 20(6): 523-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Chan DC, Kasper JD, Black BS, Rabins PV. Presence of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Predicts Nursing Home Placement in Community-Dwelling Elders With Cognitive Impairment in Univariate But Not Multivariate Analysis. Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58(6)-54[DOI]
  • 6. Tan LL, Wong HB, Allen H. The impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia on distress in family and professional caregivers in Singapore. Int Psychogeriatr. 2005; 17(2): 253-63[PubMed]
  • 7. Eker E, Ertan T. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Turkish Alzheimer's Patients. Contemporary Neuropsychiatry. 2001; : 34-8
  • 8. Dogan R, Farsak B, Yilmaz M, Tok M, Gungen Y. Congenital broncho-oesophageal fistula associated with bronchiectasis in adults. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Respiration. 1999; 66(4): 361-5[PubMed]
  • 9. Javadpour A, Ahmadzadeh L, Bahredar MJ. An educative support group for female family caregivers: impact on caregivers psychological distress and patient's neuropsychiatry symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009; 24(5): 469-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Shaji KS, Arun Kishore NR, Lal KP, Prince M. Revealing a hidden problem. An evaluation of a community dementia case-finding program from the Indian 10/66 dementia research network. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002; 17(3): 222-5[PubMed]
  • 11. Kaufer DI, Cummings JL, Ketchel P, Smith V, MacMillan A, Shelley T, et al. Validation of the NPI-Q, a brief clinical form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 12(2): 233-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Mangone C, Bueno A, Allegri R, Arizaga R, Nitrini R. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Latin America. IntPsychogeriatrics. 2000; 12: 415-8
  • 13. Homma A, Woo JI, Chiu HF, Hoek KE. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Japan and the Asian Pacific Region. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000; 12: 419-22[DOI]
  • 14. Chow TW, Liu CK, Fuh JL, Leung VP, Tai CT, Chen LW, et al. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease differ in Chinese and American patients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002; 17(1): 22-8[PubMed]
  • 15. Hendrine H, Baiyewu O, Edemire D, Prince C. Cross-cultural perspectives: Caribbean, native American and Yoruba. International Psychogeriatrics. 1996; 8: 483-6
  • 16. Liu C, Liu H. Noncognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease [in Chinese]. Research in Applied Psychology . 2000; 7: 89-104
  • 17. Cohen CI, Magai C. Racial differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms among dementia outpatients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999; 7(1): 57-63[PubMed]
  • 18. Morris JC. Clinical dementia rating: a reliable and valid diagnostic and staging measure for dementia of the Alzheimer type. Int Psychogeriatr. 1997; 9 Suppl 1: 173-6[PubMed]
  • 19. Shah A, Dalvi M, Thompson T. Behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia across cultures: current status and the future. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005; 20(12): 1187-95[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: Comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology. 1994; 44(12): 2308[DOI]
  • 21. Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional Evaluation: The Barthel Index. Md State Med J. 1965; 14: 61-5[PubMed]
  • 22. Linn BS, Linn MW, Gurel L. Cumulative illness rating scale. J American Geriatruc Society. 1968; 16: 622-6
  • 23. Morris JC. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology. 1993; 43(11): 2412-4[PubMed]
  • 24. Mejia-Arango S, Gutierrez LM. Prevalence and incidence rates of dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia in the Mexican population: data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. J Aging Health. 2011; 23(7): 1050-74[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Ha E, Kim K. Factors that influence activities of daily living in the elderly with probable dementia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2014; 21(5): 447-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. shaji K, Smitha P, Lal K, Prince M. Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a qualitative study from the Indian 10/66 dementia research network . Int J Geriatr Psychiatr. 2003; 18(1): 1-6
  • 27. Zhang M, Wang H, Li T, Yu X. Prevalence of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms across the Declining Memory Continuum: An Observational Study in a Memory Clinic Setting. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2012; 2: 200-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Aguglia E, Onor ML, Trevisiol M, Negro C, Saina M, Maso E. Stress in the caregivers of Alzheimer's patients: an experimental investigation in Italy. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2004; 19(4): 248-52[PubMed]
  • 29. Caputo M, Monastero R, Mariani E, Santucci A, Mangialasche F, Camarda R, et al. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in 921 elderly subjects with dementia: a comparison between vascular and neurodegenerative types. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 117(6): 455-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Chen JC, Borson S, Scanlan JM. Stage-specific prevalence of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease in a multi-ethnic community sample. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000; 8(2): 123-33[PubMed]
  • 31. Darani FM, Riji HM, Abedi H, Ahmad S, Latif L. How Iranian Families Response to the Conditions Affecting Elderly Primary Health Care. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010; 5(6): 420-9[DOI]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments