Shiraz E-Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

Elevated Serum Interleukin-23 and Interleukin-6 Levels in Schizophrenic Patients Compared to Those in Healthy Controls

Ali Shahraki 1 , * , Roodabe Sarabandi 2 , Mohsen Kianpour 3 and Zahra Zakeri 4
Authors Information
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran
2 Department of Biology, Isfahan Payame Noor University, Isfahan, IR Iran
3 Department of Neurology, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Shiraz E-Medical Journal: June 01, 2016, 17 (6); e38984
  • Published Online: June 25, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 5, 2016
  • Revised: June 1, 2016
  • Accepted: June 2, 2016
  • DOI: 10.17795/semj38984

To Cite: Shahraki A, Sarabandi R, Kianpour M, Zakeri Z. Elevated Serum Interleukin-23 and Interleukin-6 Levels in Schizophrenic Patients Compared to Those in Healthy Controls, Shiraz E-Med J. 2016 ; 17(6):e38984. doi: 10.17795/semj38984.

Copyright © 2016, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Muller N, Schwarz MJ. Role of cytokine network in major psychoses. Advance Mol and Cell Biol. 2003; 31: 999-1031
  • 2. Drzyzga L, Obuchowicz E, Marcinowska A, Herman ZS. Cytokines in schizophrenia and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Brain Behav Immun. 2006; 20(6): 532-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Khairova RA, Machado-Vieira R, Du J, Manji HK. A potential role for pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulating synaptic plasticity in major depressive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009; 12(4): 561-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Goldsmith DR, Rapaport MH, Miller BJ. A meta-analysis of blood cytokine network alterations in psychiatric patients: comparisons between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2016; [DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Noto CS, Gadelha A, Belangero SI, Smith MA, de Aguiar BW, Panizzuti B, et al. Association of biomarkers and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett. 2011; 505(3): 282-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Bedrossian N, Haidar M, Fares J, Kobeissy FH, Fares Y. Inflammation and Elevation of Interleukin-12p40 in Patients with Schizophrenia. Front Mol Neurosci. 2016; 9: 16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Kirkpatrick B, Miller BJ. Inflammation and schizophrenia. Schiz Bulletin. 2013;
  • 8. Ajami A, Abedian F, Hamzeh Hosseini S, Akbarian E, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Taghipour M. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-2 in schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with risperidone and clozapine. Iran J Immunol. 2014; 11(3): 200-9[PubMed]
  • 9. Henneberg AE, Horter S, Ruffert S. Increased prevalence of antibrain antibodies in the sera from schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res. 1994; 14(1): 15-22[PubMed]
  • 10. Muller N, Schwarz MJ. Cytokines, Immunity and schizophrenia with emphasis on underlying neurochemical mechanisms. In: Siegel A., And Zalcman SS. The neuroimmunological basis of behavior and mental disorders. . Springer Science Business Media. 2009; : 307-25
  • 11. Nawa H, Takahashi M, Patterson PH. Cytokine and growth factor involvement in schizophrenia--support for the developmental model. Mol Psychiatry. 2000; 5(6): 594-603[PubMed]
  • 12. Aggarwal S, Ghilardi N, Xie MH, de Sauvage FJ, Gurney AL. Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278(3): 1910-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Bettelli E, Kuchroo VK. IL-12- and IL-23-induced T helper cell subsets: birds of the same feather flock together. J Exp Med. 2005; 201(2): 169-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Delaney WE. Sounds of trumpets and other jazz. Sunderman Awards address. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1975; 5(1): 1-3[PubMed]
  • 15. Hunter CA. New IL-12-family members: IL-23 and IL-27, cytokines with divergent functions. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005; 5(7): 521-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Muller N, Schwarz MJ. Role of cytokine network in major psychoses. Advance Mol and Cell Biol. 2004; 31: 999-1031
  • 17. Schwieler L, Larsson MK, Skogh E, Kegel ME, Orhan F, Abdelmoaty S, et al. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia--significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015; 40(2): 126-33[PubMed]
  • 18. Kuloglu M, Bayik Y, Unal A, Gecici O, Ustundag B. Serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in schizophrenia subtypes. Bull Clin Psychpharmacol. 2011; 21: 193-200
  • 19. Cazzullo CL, Scarone S, Grassi B, Vismara C, Trabattoni D, Clerici M, et al. Cytokines production in chronic schizophrenia patients with or without paranoid behaviour. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 22(6): 947-57[PubMed]
  • 20. Cua DJ, Sherlock J, Chen Y, Murphy CA, Joyce B, Seymour B, et al. Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain. Nature. 2003; 421(6924): 744-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Li Y, Chu N, Hu A, Gran B, Rostami A, Zhang GX. Inducible IL-23p19 expression in human microglia via p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB signal pathways. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008; 84(1): 1-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Tang C, Chen S, Qian H, Huang W. Interleukin-23: as a drug target for autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Immunology. 2012; 135(2): 112-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Rapaport MH, Delrahim KK. An abbreviated review of immune abnormalities in schizophrenia. CNS Spectr. 2001; 6(5): 392-7[PubMed]
  • 24. Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y. Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited. J Autoimmun. 2006; 27(2): 71-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Gilvarry CM, Sham PC, Jones PB, Cannon M, Wright P, Lewis SW, et al. Family history of autoimmune diseases in psychosis. Schizophr Res. 1996; 19(1): 33-40[PubMed]
  • 26. Aberg KA, Liu Y, Bukszar J, McClay JL, Khachane AN, Andreassen OA, et al. A comprehensive family-based replication study of schizophrenia genes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70(6): 573-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Muller N, Ackenheil M. Psychoneuroimmunology and the cytokine action in the CNS: implications for psychiatric disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 22(1): 1-33[PubMed]
  • 28. Shahraki A, Kianpour M, Sarabandi R, Kordi DM. Evaluation of serum interleukin-23 and interleukin-6 in schizophrenic patients versus healthy control subjects. 4th Con the Medit Neurosci Soc. 2012; : 153
  • 29. O'Connell KE, Thakore J, Dev KK. Increased interleukin 23 (IL23) levels in schizophrenia patients treated with depot antipsychotic medication. Cytokine. 2015; 73(1): 196-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Fillman SG, Cloonan N, Catts VS, Miller LC, Wong J, McCrossin T, et al. Increased inflammatory markers identified in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2013; 18(2): 206-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. O'Connell KE, Thakore J, Dev KK. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels are raised in female schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine. Schizophr Res. 2014; 156(1): 1-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. O'Connell K, Thakore J, Dev KK. Levels of S100B are raised in female patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13: 146[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Frydecka D, Misiak B, Pawlak-Adamska E, Karabon L, Tomkiewicz A, Sedlaczek P, et al. Interleukin-6: the missing element of the neurocognitive deterioration in schizophrenia? The focus on genetic underpinnings, cognitive impairment and clinical manifestation. Eur Arch Pschiat Clin Neurosci. 2015; 265: 449-59
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments