Shiraz E-Medical Journal

Published by: Kowsar

The Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease; its Risk and Protective Factors Among the Elderly Population in Iran

Sakineh Gholamzadeh 1 , * , Banafsheh Heshmati 2 , Arash Mani 3 , Peyman Petramfar 4 and Zahra Baghery 5
Authors Information
1 Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Nursing and Midwifery School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4 Department of Neurosurgery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
5 Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Article information
  • Shiraz E-Medical Journal: September 2017, 18 (9); e57576
  • Published Online: July 15, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 14, 2017
  • Revised: March 15, 2017
  • Accepted: May 20, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/semj.57576

To Cite: Gholamzadeh S, Heshmati B, Mani A, Petramfar P, Baghery Z. The Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease; its Risk and Protective Factors Among the Elderly Population in Iran, Shiraz E-Med J. 2017 ; 18(9):e57576. doi: 10.5812/semj.57576.

Copyright © 2017, Shiraz E-Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Jacques A, Jackson G. Understanding Dementia. 2000; : 6-10
  • 2. Sadocks K. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 2009;
  • 3. Zohari S, Khatouni S, Abed Saeidi Z, Alavi Majd H, Yaghmaei F. Problems of main caregivers of alzheimer patients referring to alzheimer association in Tehran [In Persian]. Fac Nurs Midwifery Q. 2006; 16(53): 64-72
  • 4. Prince M, Bryce R, Ferri C. World Alzheimer Report 2011: The benefits of early diagnosis and intervention. 2011;
  • 5. Sosa-Ortiz AL, Acosta-Castillo I, Prince MJ. Epidemiology of dementias and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Med Res. 2012; 43(8): 600-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Burns A, Lliffe S. Alzheimer's disease. BJM . 2009; 338
  • 7. Nejaddadgar N, Fathi S, Amini F, Sadeghi R. Knowledge and preventive behaviors in Alzheimer's 1391.
  • 8. Sabetkasaei M, Haghparast A, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A, Ataie R, Nasiraei S. The study of the neuroprotective effects of curcumin, against homocysteine intracerebroventricular injection–induced cognition impairment and oxidative stress in the rat [In Persian]. Physiol Pharmacol. 2009; 13(3): 328-39
  • 9. Fadaee F, Niknam Z. Alzheimer :yesterday,today ,Future. Iran J Geriatric. 2007; 3(2): 6
  • 10. Gray SL, Anderson ML, Crane PK, Breitner JC, McCormick W, Bowen JD, et al. Antioxidant vitamin supplement use and risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008; 56(2): 291-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Alzheimer's Disease International . The global impact of dementia-an analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends; world alzheimer report. 2015;
  • 12. Alzheimer's A. 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2013; 9(2): 208-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Rice DP, Fillit HM, Max W, Knopman DS, Lloyd JR, Duttagupta S. Prevalence, costs, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia: a managed care perspective. Am J Manag Care. 2001; 7(8): 809-18[PubMed]
  • 14. Malakouti K, Fathollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Salavati M, Kahani S. Validation of geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) in Iran [In Persian]. Res Med. 2006; 30(4): 361-9
  • 15. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12(3): 189-98[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Foroughan M, Jafari Z, Shirin Bayan P, Magham Faraahani Ghaem Z, Rahgozar M. Validation of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the elderly population of Tehran. Adv In Cogn Sci. 2008; 10(2): 29-37
  • 17. Akbarzadeh Basit A. Construct and validity of Persian version of Mini-Mental State Exam in illitrate elderly. 2014;
  • 18. Whitehouse PJ, Rabins PV. Quality of life and dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1992; 6(3): 135-7[DOI]
  • 19. Farrag A, Farwiz HM, Khedr EH, Mahfouz RM, Omran SM. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementing disorders: Assiut-Upper Egypt study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1998; 9(6): 323-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Chandra V, Ganguli M, Pandav R, Johnston J, Belle S, DeKosky ST. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in rural India: the Indo-US study. Neurology. 1998; 51(4): 1000-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Lam LC, Tam CW, Lui VW, Chan WC, Chan SS, Wong S, et al. Prevalence of very mild and mild dementia in community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008; 20(1): 135-48[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Ott A, Breteler MM, van Harskamp F, Claus JJ, van der Cammen TJ, Grobbee DE, et al. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam study. BMJ. 1995; 310(6985): 970-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Lipe AW, York E, Jensen E. Construct validation of two music-based assessments for people with dementia. J Music Ther. 2007; 44(4): 369-87[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Jorm AF, Christensen H, Korten AE, Jacomb PA, Henderson AS. Memory complaints as a precursor of memory impairment in older people: a longitudinal analysis over 7-8 years. Psychol Med. 2001; 31(3): 441-9[PubMed]
  • 25. Yesavage JA, Jacob R. Effects of relaxation and mnemonics on memory, attention and anxiety in the elderly. Exp Aging Res. 1984; 10(4): 211-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Hirokawa E. Effects of music listening and relaxation instructions on arousal changes and the working memory task in older adults. J Music Ther. 2004; 41(2): 107-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Panksepp J, Bernatzky G. Emotional sounds and the brain: the neuro-affective foundations of musical appreciation. Behav Processes. 2002; 60(2): 133-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Morris MC, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Hebert LE, Bennett DA, Field TS, et al. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1998; 12(3): 121-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Boothby LA, Doering PL. Vitamin C and vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39(12): 2073-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Smith MA, Perry G. Free radical damage, iron, and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 1995; 134 Suppl: 92-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Iranmanesh F, Sayyadi A, Fayegh A, Shafiee Z. Effects of estrogen and progesterone hormones on the EEG ans MMSE in patients with Alzheimer's disease [In Persian]. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2006; 13(2): 9-15
  • 32. Wolozin B, Kellman W, Ruosseau P, Celesia GG, Siegel G. Decreased prevalence of Alzheimer disease associated with 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Arch Neurol. 2000; 57(10): 1439-43[PubMed]
  • 33. Sturmer T, Glynn RJ, Field TS, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH. Aspirin use and cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 143(7): 683-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Yeshokumar AK, Saylor D, Kornberg MD, Mowry EM. Evidence for the Importance of Vitamin D Status in Neurologic Conditions. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015; 17(12): 51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Winter Y, Korchounov A, Zhukova TV, Bertschi NE. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2011; 2(1): 27-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Paul C, Ribeiro O, Santos P. Cognitive impairment in old people living in the community. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010; 51(2): 121-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Shin KR, Jung D, Jo I, Kang Y. Depression among community-dwelling older adults in Korea: a prediction model of depression. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2009; 23(1): 50-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Sohrabi MB, Zolfaghari P, Mahdizade F, Aghayan SM, Ghasemian-Aghmashhadi M, Shariati Z, et al. Evaluation and comparison of cognitive state and depression in elderly admitted in sanitarium with elderly sited in personal home. Knowl health. 2008; 3(2): 27-31
  • 39. Beland F, Zunzunegui MV, Alvarado B, Otero A, Del Ser T. Trajectories of cognitive decline and social relations. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005; 60(6)-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Holtzman RE, Rebok GW, Saczynski JS, Kouzis AC, Wilcox Doyle K, Eaton WW. Social network characteristics and cognition in middle-aged and older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2004; 59(6)-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Lee Y, Shinkai S. Correlates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms among older adults in Korea and Japan. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005; 20(6): 576-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Bassuk SS, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Social disengagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131(3): 165-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Zunzunegui MV, Alvarado BE, Del Ser T, Otero A. Social networks, social integration, and social engagement determine cognitive decline in community-dwelling Spanish older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2003; 58(2)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Zhu S, Hu J, Efird JT. Role of social support in cognitive function among elders. J Clin Nurs. 2012; 21(15-16): 2118-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Gustafson D, Rothenberg E, Blennow K, Steen B, Skoog I. An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163(13): 1524-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Rocca WA, van Duijn CM, Clayton D, Chandra V, Fratiglioni L, Graves AB, et al. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int J Epidemiol. 1991; 20 Suppl 2-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Moceri VM, Kukull WA, Emanuel I, van Belle G, Larson EB. Early-life risk factors and the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2000; 54(2): 415-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Lindsay J, Laurin D, Verreault R, Hebert R, Helliwell B, Hill GB, et al. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156(5): 445-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Olichney JM, Hansen LA, Hofstetter CR, Grundman M, Katzman R, Thal LJ. Cerebral infarction in Alzheimer's disease is associated with severe amyloid angiopathy and hypertension. Arch Neurol. 1995; 52(7): 702-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Forette F, Seux ML, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Birkenhager WH, Babarskiene MR, et al. Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial. Lancet. 1998; 352(9137): 1347-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Luukinen H, Viramo P, Koski K, Laippala P, Kivela SL. Head injuries and cognitive decline among older adults: a population-based study. Neurology. 1999; 52(3): 557-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. McGeer PL, Schulzer M, McGeer EG. Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer's disease: a review of 17 epidemiologic studies. Neurology. 1996; 47(2): 425-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Stern Y, Gurland B, Tatemichi TK, Tang MX, Wilder D, Mayeux R. Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. JAMA. 1994; 271(13): 1004-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Cobb JL, Wolf PA, Au R, White R, D'Agostino RB. The effect of education on the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the Framingham Study. Neurology. 1995; 45(9): 1707-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Plassman BL, Langa KM, Fisher GG, Heeringa SG, Weir DR, Ofstedal MB, et al. Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology. 2007; 29(1-2): 125-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Tyas SL, Manfreda J, Strain LA, Montgomery PR. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a population-based, longitudinal study in Manitoba, Canada. Int J Epidemiol. 2001; 30(3): 590-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Masoomi N, Jafradi S, Ghanbari A, Ebrahimi M, Kazemnejad E, Shojaie F. Assessment of cognitive function and related factors in Rasht [In Persian]. ISCE J. 2014; 8(29): 7
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments