Shiraz E-Medical Journal

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The Fourth Epidemiological Transition: The Need for Worldwide Focus on Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Emergencies

Hamid Safarpour ORCID 1 and Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh 1 , 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Shiraz E-Medical Journal: 20 (8); e86746
  • Published Online: April 13, 2019
  • Article Type: Letter
  • Received: November 25, 2018
  • Accepted: February 24, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/semj.86746

To Cite: Safarpour H, Khorasani-Zavareh D. The Fourth Epidemiological Transition: The Need for Worldwide Focus on Reducing Morbidity and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Emergencies, Shiraz E-Med J. Online ahead of Print ; 20(8):e86746. doi: 10.5812/semj.86746.

Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
Footnotes
References
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  • 2. Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition. A theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 1971;49(4):509-38. doi: 10.2307/3349375. [PubMed: 5155251].
  • 3. Armelagos GJ, Brown PJ, Turner B. Evolutionary, historical and political economic perspectives on health and disease. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61(4):755-65. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.066. [PubMed: 15950089].
  • 4. McKeown RE. The epidemiologic transition: Changing patterns of mortality and population dynamics. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2009;3(1 Suppl):19S-26S. doi: 10.1177/1559827609335350. [PubMed: 20161566]. [PubMed Central: PMC2805833].
  • 5. Zuckerman MK. Modern environments and human health: Revisiting the second epidemiological transition. John Wiley & Sons; 2014. doi: 10.1002/9781118504338.
  • 6. Mascie-Taylor CN, Peters J, McGarvey ST. The changing face of disease: implications for society. New York: CRC Press; 2004.
  • 7. Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, Ponserre S. Annual disaster statistical review 2015: The numbers and trends. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED); 2016.
  • 8. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Annual reported economic damages and time trend from disasters: 1980-2015. Human impact by disaster types (2015 versus average 2005-2014).The OFDA/CRED - International Disaster Database. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction; 2015. Available from: www.emdat.be www.unisdr.org.
  • 9. World Health Organization. Injuries and violence: The facts. 2010. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44288/9789241599375_eng.pdf.
  • 10. Haagsma JA, Graetz N, Bolliger I, Naghavi M, Higashi H, Mullany EC, et al. The global burden of injury: Incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. Inj Prev. 2016;22(1):3-18. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041616. [PubMed: 26635210]. [PubMed Central: PMC4752630].
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